## How many components with pressure losses can be modeled?

A component can be added to every pipe in the system, and the number of components is therefore only limited by the maximum number of pipes (1000) allowed in a single pipe model.

Components can be specified either as a fixed loss, or via a pressure loss curve that describes the pressure loss against a range of flow rates going through the component, or via a Kv or Cv value, which describes the flow rate through the component for a 1 bar or 1 psi pressure drop across the component respectively.

Components are used to allow the modeling of bespoke items such as heat exchangers, boilers, fan coils, cooling coils, filters, chillers and spray nozzles, etc. They allow the user to define bespoke performance curves that relate flow rate through the component to an associated pressure drop. The Pipe Flow Expert software then works out at which point on the flow versus head loss performance curve of the component the system balances (when also considering all of the other flows and pressure drops throughout the pipe system).

The resulting flow rate through the component and the pressure loss through the component are shown on the system drawing in results mode, when the user hovers the mouse over a pipe that contains a component.

**Note about Components versus Fittings and K factors:**

Component Cv and KV values are not the same as Fitting K factors.

The pressure loss through Standard Fittings (bends, etc) and Standard Valves (ball valves, check valves, etc) are not modeled as components, since Standard Fitting items are modeled via a K factor value, where the pressure drop across the 'fitting' is calculated from the flow rate via the equation:

Pressure drop in head of fluid = (K * v * v ) / 2g

K = K factor for a particular fitting or valve

v = velocity

g = acceleration due to gravity

Up to 5 different type of fittings can be added to each pipe and a quantity of each fitting type can be specified, therefore while the number of components is limited by the maximum number of pipes, the number of pipe fittings and valves allowed is much higher (many thousands of pipe fittings and valves can be modeled).